Oral-B iO4 Electric Toothbrushes For Adults, Christmas Gifts For Women / Him, 1 Toothbrush Head, 4 Modes With Teeth Whitening, UK 2 Pin Plug, Black

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Oral-B iO4 Electric Toothbrushes For Adults, Christmas Gifts For Women / Him, 1 Toothbrush Head, 4 Modes With Teeth Whitening, UK 2 Pin Plug, Black

Oral-B iO4 Electric Toothbrushes For Adults, Christmas Gifts For Women / Him, 1 Toothbrush Head, 4 Modes With Teeth Whitening, UK 2 Pin Plug, Black

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Metaperiodates are typically prepared by the dehydration of sodium hydrogen periodate with nitric acid, [2] or by dehydrating orthoperiodic acid by heating it to 100 °C under vacuum. Periodates were discovered by Heinrich Gustav Magnus and C. F. Ammermüller; who first synthesised periodic acid in 1833. [1] Synthesis [ edit ] Classically, periodate was most commonly produced in the form of sodium hydrogen periodate ( Na 3H 2IO 6). [3] This is commercially available, but can also be produced by the oxidation of iodates with chlorine and sodium hydroxide. [4] Or, similarly, from iodides by oxidation with bromine and sodium hydroxide: Record of Natriumperiodat in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 2018-01-08.

In this regard it is comparable to the tellurate ion from the adjacent group. It can combine with a number of counter ions to form periodates, which may also be regarded as the salts of periodic acid. Periodate / p ə ˈ r aɪ . ə d eɪ t/ is an anion composed of iodine and oxygen. It is one of a number of oxyanions of iodine and is the highest in the series, with iodine existing in oxidation state +7. Unlike other perhalogenates, such as perchlorate, it can exist in two forms: metaperiodate IO − H 5 IO 6 + H + + 2 e − ⟶ IO 3 − + 3 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {H5IO6 + H+ + 2e- -> IO3- + 3 H2O}}} E° = 1.6 V [5] Classically, periodate was most commonly produced in the form of sodium hydrogen periodate ( Na 3H 2IO 6). [2] This is commercially available, but can also be produced by the oxidation of iodates with chlorine and sodium hydroxide. [3] Or, similarly, from iodides by oxidation with bromine and sodium hydroxide:

Na 3 H 2 IO 6 + 2 HNO 3 ⟶ NaIO 4 + 2 NaNO 3 + 2 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {Na3H2IO6 + 2 HNO3 -> NaIO4 + 2 NaNO3 + 2 H2O}}} H 5 IO 6 ⟶ HIO 4 + 2 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {H5IO6 -> HIO4 + 2 H2O}}} Periodate can exist in a variety of forms in aqueous media, with pH being a controlling factor. Orthoperiodate has a number of acid dissociation constants. [5] [6] H 5 IO 6 ↽ − − ⇀ H 4 IO 6 − + H + {\displaystyle {\ce {H5IO6 <=> H4IO6- + H+}}} p K a = 3.29 H 4 IO 6 − ↽ − − ⇀ H 3 IO 6 2 − + H + {\displaystyle {\ce {H4IO6- <=> H3IO6 Jansen, Martin; Rehr, Anette (1988). "Na 2H 3IO 6, eine Variante der Markasitstruktur". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (in German). 567 (1): 95–100. doi: 10.1002/zaac.19885670111. Sodium metaperiodate can be prepared by the dehydration of sodium hydrogen periodate with nitric acid. [3] Na 3 H 2 IO 6 + 2 HNO 3 ⟶ NaIO 4 + 2 NaNO 3 + 2 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {Na3H2IO6 + 2 HNO3 -> NaIO4 + 2 NaNO3 + 2 H2O}}} Structure [ edit ] H 5 IO 6 + H + + 2 e − ⟶ IO 3 − + 3 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {H5IO6 + H+ + 2e- -> IO3- + 3 H2O}}} E° = 1.6 V [4]

Sodium hydrogen periodate (Na 2H 3IO 6) forms orthorhombic crystals (space group Pnnm). Iodine and sodium atoms are both surrounded by an octahedral arrangement of 6 oxygen atoms; however the NaO 6 octahedron is strongly distorted. IO 6 and NaO 6 groups are linked via common vertices and edges. [7] Parsons, Roger (1959). Handbook of electrochemical constants. Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd. p. 71. Andrew G. Wee, Jason Slobodian, Manuel A. Fernández-Rodríguez and Enrique Aguilar "Sodium Periodate" e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2006. doi: 10.1002/047084289X.rs095.pub2 a b Riley, edited by Georg Brauer; translated by Scripta Technica, Inc. Translation editor Reed F. (1963). Handbook of preparative inorganic chemistry. Volume 1 (2nded.). New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. pp.323–324. ISBN 012126601X. {{ cite book}}: |first= has generic name ( help) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)

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ions with average I–O bond distances of 1.775Å; the Na + ions are surrounded by 8 oxygen atoms at distances of 2.54 and 2.60Å. [6] Sodium metaperiodate (NaIO 4) forms tetragonal crystals ( space group I4 1/ a) consisting of slightly distorted IO − NaIO 3 sodium iodate + Cl 2 + 4 NaOH ⟶ Na 3 H 2 IO 6 + 2 NaCl + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {{\overset {sodium\ iodate}{NaIO3}}+Cl2{}+4NaOH->Na3H2IO6{}+2NaCl{}+H2O}}} NaI + 4 Br 2 + 10 NaOH ⟶ Na 3 H 2 IO 6 + 8 NaBr + 4 H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {NaI + 4 Br2 + 10 NaOH -> Na3H2IO6 + 8 NaBr + 4 H2O}}}

McMurry, John. Organic chemistry (8th ed., [international ed.]ed.). Singapore: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. pp.285–286. ISBN 9780840054531. Hill, Arthur E. (October 1928). "Ternary Systems. VII. The Periodates of the Alkali Metals". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 50 (10): 2678–2692. doi: 10.1021/ja01397a013.Modern industrial scale production involves the electrochemical oxidation of iodates, on a lead dioxide ( PbO 2) anode, with the following standard electrode potential: Sodium periodate is an inorganic salt, composed of a sodium cation and the periodate anion. It may also be regarded as the sodium salt of periodic acid. Like many periodates, it can exist in two different forms: sodium metaperiodate (formula‍NaIO 4) and sodium orthoperiodate (normally Na 2H 3IO 6, but sometimes the fully reacted salt Na 5IO 6). Both salts are useful oxidising agents. [2] Preparation [ edit ] They can also be generated directly from iodates by treatment with other strong oxidizing agents such as hypochlorites:



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